The Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing. A Case of Lagos Nigeria

Keywords: Social media, Social media marketing, business development, small businesses, advertising, information communication technology


Small businesses are drivers of any economy because of their capacity to, among others, provide employment to the people and the owners. Their extinction will greatly affect a nation. This study focused on small enterprises in Lagos, Nigeria and how social media is deployed in them. The study is necessary because most small enterprises in Nigeria do not make it past the first few years of operation. Perhaps the adoption of social media by small businesses in Lagos may create extra opportunities for their growth. A questionnaire was employed to collect data from participants since it was less expensive and allowed for huge amounts of data to be gathered in a short amount of time. This study shows that the majority of small enterprises in Nigeria employ social media to promote their goods and services. Most business owners confirmed that the platform is efficient when applied in business. The findings also reveal that some enterprise owners are still yet to implement social media marketing into their advertising plans. Some implications and recommendations are flagged.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ikenna Franklin Eze, Cape Peninsula University of Technology

Ikenna Eze is a Ph.D. candidate at Cape Peninsula University of Technology. His highest qualification is MTech in entrepreneurship at Cape Peninsula University of Technology. He is a part-time lecturer at AFDA, where he teaches marketing & sales for second years seconds. His cell phone number is +27814368645.

Ephias Ruhode, Cape Peninsula University of Technology

Ephias Ruhode is a Professor at the faculty of information and design at Cape Peninsula University of Technology. His cell phone number is +27728026329

Chux Iwu, Cape Peninsula University of Technology

Chux Iwu is a Professor and HOD of entrepreneurship department at Cape Peninsula University of Technology. His cell phone number is +27834211210.


Al-Mubarak, F., 1997. The usefulness of corporate annual reports to investment analysts in Saudi Arabia. Doctoral dissertation, Newcastle University.

Ainin, S., Parveen, F., Moghavvemi, S., Jaafar, N. I., & Mohd Shuib, N. L. (2015). Factors influencing the use of social media by SMEs and its performance outcomes. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 115(3), 570-588.

Ali, Z., Muhammad, A. S., Mashal, R. D., & Abid, H. (2016). To assess the impact of social media marketing on consumer perception. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting. Finance and Management Sciences, 6(3), 69–77.

Alakali, T. T., Alu, F. A., Tarnong, M., & Ogbu, E. (2014). The impact of social marketing networks on the promotion of Nigerian global market: an analytical approach. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(3), 1-8.

Bethapudi, A. (2013). The role of ICT in the tourism industry. Journal of Applied Economics and Business, 1(4), 67-79.

Bigthink. (2018). “These cities are the hubs of Africa’s economic boom”. 4 October. Retrieved from: [Accesssed 21 February 2021]

Castronovo, C. (2012). Social media in an alternative marketing communication model. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 6(1), 117-134.

Centeno, E., & Hart S. (2012). The use of communication activities in the development of small to medium-sized enterprise brands. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 30(2),250-265.

Copley, P. (2014). Marketing Communications Management: Analysis, planning implementation. London: Sage Publications.

Diamond, S. (2008). Web marketing for small businesses: 7 steps to explosive business growth. Sourcebooks, Inc.

Dong-Hun, L. (2010). Korean consumer and society: growing popularity of social media and business strategy. SERI Quarterly, 3(4), 112-117.

Edwards, E. (2017). Betting firms ‘should be taken out of sports sponsorship’. 4 November. Retrieved from: [Accessed 12 February 2021].

Eze, I. F. (2019). The utility of social network sites in facilitating business development: linkages between enterprise development and new media. Masters dissertation, Cape Peninsula University of Technology.

Fisher, T. (2009). ROI in social media: a look at the arguments. Journal of Database Marketing and Customer Strategy Management, 16(3) 189-195.

Goodhue, D.L., & Thompson, R.L. (1995). Task-technology fit and individual performance. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 213-236.

Hoffman, D.L., & Fodor, M. (2010). Can you measure the ROI of your social media marketing? MIT Sloan Management Review, 52 (1), 41.

Hanna, R., Rohm, A., & Crittenden, V. L. (2011). We’re all connected: the power of the social media ecosystem. Business Horizons, 54 (3), 265-273.

Hawn, C. (2009). Take two aspirin and tweet me in the morning: how Twitter, Facebook, and other social media are reshaping health care. Health Affairs, 28(2), 361-368.

Hsu, Y., & Ting, Y. (2013). The application of e-marketing strategy in the U.S. hospitality industry. Storage Management Solutions, 3(3), 1-14.

ISACA. 2010. Social Media: Business Benefits and Security, Governance and Assurance Perspectives. Emerging Technology White Paper. Retrieved from: [Accessed 20 February 2021].

Järvinen, J., & Taiminen, H. (2016). Harnessing marketing automation for B2B content Marketing. Industrial Marketing Management, 54, 164–175.

John, H., Jason, P., Terry, F., Stuart, C., Michael, K., & John, B. (2012). Key concepts in creative industries. SAGE.

Karjaluoto, H., Mustonen, N., & Ulkuniemi, P. (2015). The role of digital channels in Industrial marketing communications. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 30(6), 703–710.

Kenly, A., & Poston, B. (2016). Social media and product innovation early adopters reaping benefits

amidst challenge and uncertainty, Kalypso white paper, Kalypso Consulting Firm. Retrieved from: [Accessed 20 February 2021].

Khan, S., & Karodia, A. M. (2013). The effectiveness of using social media networking technology for marketing in South Africa. Singapore Journal of Business Economics and Management Studies, 2(3), 10-17.

Kwok, L., & Yu, B. (2013). Spreading Social Media Messages on Facebook: An Analysis of Restaurant Business-to-Consumer Communications. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 54(1), 84-94.

Lacoste, S. (2016). Perspectives on social media and its use by key account managers. Industrial Marketing Management, 54, 33-43.

Leeflang, P. S., Verhoef, P. C., Dahlström, P., & Freundt, T. (2014). Challenges and solutions for marketing in a digital era. European Management Journal, 32(1), 1-12.

Lipsman, A., Mudd, G., Rich, M., & Bruich, S. (2012). The power of like: How brands reach and influence fans through social-media marketing. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(1), 40-52.

Maduekwe, C.C., & Kamala, P. (2016). The use of budgets by small and medium enterprises in the Cape Metropole, South Africa. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 14(1), 183-191.

Maree, K. (2007). First Steps in Research. 1st ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers. Malthouse, E. C., Haenlein, M., Skiera, B., Wege, E., & Zhang, M. (2013). Managing customer relationships in the social media era: introducing the social CRM house. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 27(4), 270–280.

McKinsey, (2012). There are 300 million social media users in China! Tencent. Retrieved from: [Accessed 14 February 2021].

Monette, D.R., Sullivan, T.J., & De Jong, C.R. (2005). Applied Social Research: A Tool for Human Services. London: Thomas Brooks.

Mouton, J. (2006). Understanding Social Research. City: Van Schaik Publishers.

National Bureau of Statistics. (2015). Lagos state information. [Accesssed 12 February 2021].

Nwokah, N.G., & Aeenee, F.L. (2017). Social Media Marketing and Business Success of Automobile Dealers in Rivers State. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7, 1298-1319.

Nguyen, B., Yu, X., Melewar, T. C., & Chen, J. (2015). Brand innovation and social media: Knowledge acquisition from social media, market orientation, and the moderating role of social media strategic capability. Industrial Marketing Management, 51, 11–25.

Nyambu, E.M. (2013). Influence of Social Media Marketing on Performance of Telecommunication Firms in Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 2(9), 185-190.

Olufemi, L. (2016). 4 Top Social Media Platform for Nigerian Businesses. 31 May. Retrieved from:

-businesses/. [Accessed February 4, 2021].

Omotayo, A. A., Akinyele, F.A., & Akinyele, S.T. (2015). Effect of social media marketing on small scale business performance in Ota-Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Social Science, 2(3), 275-283.

Oni, O., & Papazafeiropoulou, A. (2014). Diverse views on IT innovation diffusion among SMEs: Influencing factors of broadband adoption'. Information Systems Frontiers, 16(4), 729-747.

Otugo, N. E., Uzuegbunam, C. E., & Obikeze, C. O. (2015). Social media advertising/marketing: A study of awareness, attitude, and responsiveness by Nigerian youths. International Conference on Communication, Media, Technology and Design, 1(2), 1-17.

Perdue, D. J. (2010). Social media marketing: Gaining a competitive advantage by reaching the masses. Social Media Marketing, 1, 3-36.

Pew Research Centre. (2015). Internet Use over Time: American Adults. Retrieved from: [Accessed 15 February 2021].

Phua, J., Jin, S.V., & Kim, J. (2017). Gratifications of using Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or Snapchat to follow brands: the moderating effect of social comparison, trust, the strength, and NetWare homophily on brand identification, brand engagement, brand commitment, and membership intention. Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 412-424.

Qureshi, I. A., Narsim, I., & Whitty, M. (2014). Impact of social media marketing on the consumers’ preferences in the restaurant industry: An empirical study of Pakistan. Journal of Business and Management, 16(9), 65-74.

Reuben, R. (2008). The use of social media in higher education for marketing and communications: A guide for professionals in higher education. Retrieved from: [Accessed 15 February 2021].

Roberts, D.L., & Candi, M. (2014). Leveraging social network sites in new product development: opportunity or hype? Journal of Product. Innovation Management, 31, 105–117.

Rumman, A. H., & Alhadid, A. Y. (2014). The importance of social media marketing on brand equity: An empirical study of mobile service providers in Jordan. Review of Integrated Business and Economic Research, 3(1), 315-326.

Seth, G. (2012). Analysing the effect of social media on the hospitality industry. Unpublished Masters’ thesis, University of Nevada.

Shilbury, D., Quick, S., Funk, D., Westerbeek, H., & Karg, A. (2014). Strategic sport marketing. Routledge.

Stelzner, M.A. (2016). Social Media Marketing Industry Report. 24 May. Available at: [Accessed 16 February, 2021].

Sterne, J. (2010). Social media metrics: How to measure and optimize your marketing investment. John Wiley & Sons.

Swani, K., Milne, G. R., Brown, B. P., Assaf, A. G., & Donthu, N. (2017). What messages to post? Evaluating the popularity of social media communications in business versus consumer markets. Industrial Marketing Management, 62, 77–87.

Szolnoki, G., Taits, D., Hoffmann, C., Ludwig, R., Thach, L., Dolan, R., & Thompson, S. (2014). A cross-cultural comparison of social media usage in the wine business. In Proceedings of the 8th AWBR International Conference, 28-30.

Waithaka, G. M., Muturi, W., & Nyabuto, K. (2014). Effects of marketing strategies on the growth of small businesses in Kenya: A survey of Kariakor Market. European Journal of Business Management, 1(11), 261-275.

Walt, K. (2013). Major Content Marketing Solutions and Problems. Retried from:

Weinberg, B. D., & Pehlivan, E. (2011). Social spending: managing the social media mix. Business Horizons, 54(3), 275-282.

Zappe, J. (2010). The ROI of social media. Journal of Corporate Recruiting Leadership, 5(3), 3-9.

How to Cite
Eze, I. F., Ruhode, E., & Iwu, C. (2021). The Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing. A Case of Lagos Nigeria. Harvard Deusto Business Research, 10(2), 255-271.