African Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the UK
The Hidden Hand of Family Influence on Entrepreneurial Orientation
The importance of ethnic minority businesses (EMBs) has been lauded in the entrepreneurship discourse. Building on entrepreneurial orientation theory, this study seeks to understand family influence on the entrepreneurial processes, practices, and decision-making activities in a relatively under-explored social group. The methodological approach in this study involved in-depth interviews with 10 entrepreneurs based in the United Kingdom. This study found strong social identity congruence behaviour of explored entrepreneurs from the point of how their entrepreneurial orientation is family-influence driven. For the entrepreneurs, the family is a central behaviour factor that exerts significantly on their entrepreneurial processes and decision making. As a result, actual judgement and decision making of entrepreneurs may not necessarily be driven by economic logic but largely by family control factors that even exert more significantly on entrepreneurial behaviour. This study contributes to the psychological and family control perspectives on entrepreneurship discourse. This study has two core limitations: it is based on the qualitative approach and explores only one social group. Future research in the form of quantitative studies that also examine other cultural enclaves would therefore help to enhance the causes and effects conclusions suggested in this study.
Abedin, A., & Brettel, M. (2011). Impact of Acculturation on Immigrant Consumer Behavior. American Marketing Association, 22, 271-272.
Abodohoui, A., Su, Z., Sogbossi, B., & Chrysostome, E. (2020). African and Chinese managerial practices: A cross-cultural comparison. Management International, 24(3), 195-209.
Aldrich, H. E., & Waldinger, R. (1990). Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 111-135.
Alves, C.R. (2013). The Survival of firms Founded by Foreign Entrepreneurs. Paper to be presented at the DRUID Academy at Comwell Rebild Bakker. Rebild/Aalborg.
Anderson, B. S., Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (2009). Understanding the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and strategic learning capability: An empirical investigation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(3), 218-240.
Anderson, B. S., Kreiser, P. M., Kuratko, D. F., Hornsby, J. S., & Eshima, Y. (2015). Reconceptualizing entrepreneurial orientation. Strategic Management Journal, 36, 1579-1596.
Aracil, E. (2019). Corporate social responsibility of Islamic and conventional banks: The influence of institutions in emerging countries. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 14(4), 582-600.
Arthur, S. J., & Hisrich, R. D. (2011). Entrepreneurship through the ages: Lessons learned. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 19, 1-40. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218495811000696
Athwal, R. (2017). Unleash your Family Business DNA: Building a Family Legacy that Lasts Generations. New York: RTS Books.
Auerbach, C. F., & Silverstain, L. B. (2003). Qualitative Data: An Introduction to Coding and Analysis. London: New York University Press.
Ayoko, O. B., Konrad, A. M., & Boyle, V. (2012). Online work: managing conflict and emotions for performance in virtual teams. European Management Journal, 30(2), 156-174.
Basu, A. (2011). From 'break out' to 'breakthrough': Successful market strategies of immigrant entrepreneurs in the UK. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 15, 1-23.
Basu, A., & Altinay, E. (2002). The Interaction Between Culture and Entrepreneurship in London’s Immigrant, Business. International Small Business Journal, 20, 371- 394.
Berrone, P., Cruz, C., & Gómez-Mejía, L. (2012). Socioemotional wealth in family firms’ theoretical dimensions, assessment approaches, and agenda for future research. Family Business Review, 25, 258-279.
Blanchett, M., Chen, A., Rubach, M.J., & Duggins, R. (2019). Social capital and success of minority entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Diversity, 19, 108-123.
Brewer, P., & Venaik, S. (2011). Individualism-Collectivism in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 436–445.
Brown, J. D., Earle, J. S., Kim, M. J., & Lee, K. M. (2019). Immigrant entrepreneurs and innovation in the US high-tech sector. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Bryman, A., & Burgess, R.G. (1994). Reflections on qualitative data analysis. In A. Bryman, & R. G. Burgess (Eds), Analyzing Qualitative Data (216-226). London: Routledge.
Carney, M. (2005). Corporate governance and competitive advantage in family-controlled firms, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29, 249–265.
Chan, J. K., & Quah, W. B. (2012). Start-up Factors for Small and Medium-sized accommodation businesses in Sabah, Malaysia: Push and Pull Factors. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17, 49-62.
Chinomona, E., & Maziriri, E.T., (2015). Examining the Phenomenon of Xenophobia as Experienced by African Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Johannesburg, South Africa: Intensifying the Spirit of ‘Ubuntuʼ. International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management, 2(6), 20-31.
Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., De Massis, A., Frattini, F., & Wright, M. (2015). The ability and willingness paradox in family firm innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32, 310-318.
Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., Pearson, A. W., & Barnett, T. (2012). Family involvement, family influence, and family‐centered non‐economic goals in small firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(2), 267-293.
Combs, J. G., Jaskiewicz, P., Shanine, K. K., & Balkin, D. B. (2017). Making sense of HRM in family firms: Antecedents, moderators, and outcomes. Human Resource Management Review, DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.05.001.
Covin, J.G., & Lumpkin, G.T. (2011). Entrepreneurial orientation theory and research: Reflections on a needed construct. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(5). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2011.00482.x
Covin, J. G., & Miller, D. (2014). International entrepreneurial orientation: Conceptual considerations, research themes, measurement issues, and future research directions. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 38(1), 11-44.
Covin, J. G. & Wales, W. J. (2012). The measurement of entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 36(4), 677-702.
Craig, J. B, Dibrell, C., & Garrett, R. (2014). Examining Relationships among Family Influence, Family Culture, Flexible Planning Systems, Innovativeness and Firm Performance. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 5(3), 229-238.
Czarniawska, B. (1998). A Narrative Approach to Organisation Studies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Danes, S. M., Stafford, K., Haynes, G., & Amarapurkar, S. S. (2009). Family capital of family firms: Bridging human, social, and financial capital, Family Business Review, 22(3), 199-216.
Danes, S. M. (2014). The future of family business research through the family scientist's lens. The SAGE Handbook of Family Business, 611-619. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Danes, S. M., & Brewton, K. E. (2012). Follow the capital: benefits of tracking family capital across family and business systems. In A. Carsrud, M. Brännback (Eds.), Understanding Family Businesses: Undiscovered Approaches, Unique Perspectives, and Neglected Topics (227–250). New York: Springer.
Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2003). The Role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301–331.
Dawson, A. (2012). Human capital in family businesses: Focusing on the individual level. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 3, 3-11.
De Massis, A., & Foss, N. J. (2018). Advancing family business research: The promise of microfoundations. Family Business Review, 31(4), 386-396.
De Mooij, M., & Hofstede, G. (2011). Cross-cultural consumer behavior: A review of research findings. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(4), 181–192.
Decker, R., Haltiwanger, J., Jarmin, R., & Miranda, J. (2014). The role of entrepreneurship in US job creation and economic dynamism. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28, 3-24.
Dey, B. L., Balmer, J. M. T., Pandit, A., Saren, M., & Binsardi, B. (2017). A quadripartite approach to analysing young British South Asian adults’ dual cultural identity. Journal of Marketing Management, 33(9-10),789-816. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2017.1324896
Duh, M., Tominc, P., & Rebernik, M. (2009). Growth ambitions and succession solutions in family businesses. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 16(2), 256-269. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000910956047
Dyer, W. G., Nenque, E., & Hill, E. J. (2014). Toward a Theory of Family Capital and Entrepreneurship: Antecedents and Outcomes. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(2), 266–285.
Eresia-Eke, C., & Okerue, C., (2020). Owner-manager human capital and business coping ability in African immigrant small businesses in Southern Africa. Development Southern Africa, 37(2), 348-361.
Eresia-Eke, C. E. (2013). Can owner-manager characteristics signal small business loan default propensity? Journal of Economics and Behavioural Studies, 5(11), 762–776.
Gagné, M., Sharma, P., & De Massis, A. (2014). The study of organizational behaviour in family business. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23, 643-656.
Galdeano, D. M., Ahmed, U., Fati, M., Rehan, R., & Ahmed, A. (2019). Financial performance and corporate social responsibility in the banking sector of Bahrain: Can engagement moderate? Management Science Letters, 9, 1529-1542.
Gedajlovic, E., Carney, M., Chrisman, J. J., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2012). The adolescence of family firm research taking stock and planning for the future. Journal of Management, 38, 1010-1037.
Goel, S., & Jones III, R. J. (2016). Entrepreneurial exploration and exploitation in family business: A systematic review and future directions. Family Business Review, 29, 94-120.
Goffee, R. (1996). Understanding family businesses: issues for further research. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 2(1), 36-48. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552559610110709
Gómez-Mejía, L. R., Cruz, C., Berrone, P., & De Castro, J. (2011). The bind that ties: Socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms. Academy of Management Annals, 5, 653-707.
Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3), 481–510.
Habbershon, T. G., & Williams, M. L. (1999). A resource-based framework for assessing the strategic advantages of family firms. Family Business Review, 12, 1-25.
Hack-Polay, D., Igwe, P. A., & Madichie, N. O. (2020). The role of institutional and family embeddedness in the failure of Sub-Saharan African migrant family businesses. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation. https://doi.org/10.1177/1465750320909732
Hagos, S., Izak, M., & Scott, J.M. (2019). Objective institutionalized barriers and subjective performance factors of new migrant entrepreneurs. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Behaviour and Research, 25(5), 842-858.
Hagos, S.B. (2015). An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis of Eritrean Refugee Entrepreneurs in the UK. PhD thesis. University of Teesside, United Kingdom.
Hajro, A., Caprar, D. V., Zikic, J., & Stahl, G. K. (2018). Global migrants: understanding the implications for international business and management. Journal of World Business, 56. 101192.
Hamrouni, A.D., & Mnasser, K. (2013). Basics factors of success in family-owned businesses from second to third generation. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 18(1), 57-78.
Hillebrand, S. (2019). Innovation in family firms–a generational perspective. Journal of Family Business Management, 9(2), 126-148.
Hessels, J., & Zwan, P. V. (2013). Start-up Motivation and (in) Voluntary Exit. EIM Business and Policy Research, 201309.
Hoffman, J., Hoelscher, M., & Sorenson, R. (2006). Achieving sustained competitive advantage: A family capital theory. Family Business Review, 19(2), 135-145.
Hofstede, G. (1994). Management Scientists Are Human Author(s) Management Science. Management Science International, 40(1), 4-13.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2, 1-26.
Holt, D. T., Pearson, A.W., Carr, J. C., & Barnett, T. (2017). Family firm(s) outcomes model: Structuring financial and nonfinancial outcomes across the family and firm. Family Business Review, 30(2), 182-202.
Hoon, C., Hack, A., & Kellermanns, F.W. (2019). Advancing knowledge on human resource management in family firms: An introduction and integrative framework. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 33, 147-166.
Howell, A. (2019). Ethnic entrepreneurship, initial financing, and business performance in China. Small Business Economics, 52, 697–712.
Igwe, P.A., Newbery R., Amoncar, N., White, G.R.T., & Madichie, N.O. (2018). Keeping it in the family: exploring Igbo ethnic entrepreneurial behaviour in Nigeria. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2017-0492
Ireland, R. D., Covin, J. G., & Kuratko, D. F. (2009). Conceptualizing corporate entrepreneurship strategy. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 33(1), 19-46.
Iwu, C. G., & Opute, A. P. (2019). Eradicating poverty and unemployment: Narratives of survivalist entrepreneurs. Journal of Reviews on Global Economics, 1438-1451. https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-7092.2019.08.127
James, A. E., Jennings, J. E., & Breitkreuz, R. S. (2012). Worlds apart? Rebridging the distance between family science and family business research. Family Business Review, 25, 87-108.
Jaskiewicz, P., & Dyer, W. G. (2017). Addressing the elephant in the room: Disentangling family heterogeneity to advance family business research. Family Business Review, 30, 111-118.
Jayawarna, D., Rouse, J., & Kitching, J. (2013). Entrepreneur motivations and life course. International Small Business Journal, 31(1), 34-56.
Jiang, D. S., Kellermanns, F. W., Munyon, T. P., & Morris, M. L. (2017). More than meets the eye: A review and future directions for the social psychology of socioemotional wealth. Family Business Review, 31, 125-157.
Jones, T., Ram, M., Edwards, P., Kiselinchev, A., & Muchenje, L. (2012). New Migrant Enterprise: Novelty or Historical Continuity? Urban Studies, 49(14), 3159–3176.
Kakabadse, A. P., Kakabadse, N. K., & Knyght, R. (2010). The chemistry factor in the Chairman/ CEO relationship. European Management Journal, 28(4), 285-296.
Kasperova, E., & Blackburn, R. (2014). Embodied practices, concerns and entrepreneurial identity. In: 59th International Council for Small Business (ICSB) World Conference 2014: Entrepreneurship and Sustainability. Dublin, Ireland.
Khosa, R. M. (2020). Intra-transfer of ownership factors and external transfer of ownership effects: Evidence from the Gauteng enterprising community, South Africa. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 765-785.
Khosa, R. M. (2020). Succession planning for family-owned small enterprises in Gauteng. Unpublished D. Tech thesis. Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria.
Khosa, R.M., & Kalitanyi, V. (2015). Migration reasons, traits and entrepreneurial motivation of African immigrant entrepreneurs: Towards an entrepreneurial migration progression. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 9(2), 132-155. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEC-07-2014-0011
Kotlar, J., Signori, A., De Massis, A., & Vismara, S. (2018). Financial wealth, socioemotional wealth, and IPO underpricing in family firms: A two-stage gamble model. Academy of Management Journal, 61(3), 1073-1099.
Li & Karakowsky (2001). Do We See Eye-to-Eye? Implications of Cultural Differences for Cross-Cultural Management Research and Practice. The Journal of Psychology, 135(5), 501-517.
Lin, N. (2001). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lincoln, Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
Liu, J. (2010). Culture and Knowledge Transfer: Theoretical Considerations. Journal of Service Science and Management, 3(1), 159-164.
Lutz, D.W. (2009). African Ubuntu philosophy and global management. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(3), 313-328.
Marieke de Mooij (2018). Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes. London: Sage.
Marjański, A., Sułkowski, L., Marjańska-Potakowska J., & Staniszewska, K. (2012). Social capital drives SME growth: A study of family firms in Poland. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 33, 280-304.
Mbigi, L. (1997). Ubuntu: The African dream in management. Randburg: Knowledge Resources.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Miller, D. (2011). Miller (1983) revisited: A reflection on EO research and some suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 35(5), 873-894.
Moos, M. (2019). Networking and support. In C. Nieuwenhuizen, & G. Nieman (Eds.), Entrepreneurship: A South African Perspective (239-262). 4th edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Neckebrouck, J., Schulze, W., & Zellweger, T. (2018), “Are family firms good employers?” Academy of Management Journal, 61, 553-585.
Neumeyer, X., Santos, S.C., Caetano, A., & Kalbfleisch, P., (2019). Entrepreneurship ecosystems and women entrepreneurs: a social capital and network approach. Small Business Economics, 53, 475-489.
Nwankwo, S., Akunuri, J., & Madichie, N. O. (2010). Supporting black businesses: narratives of support providers in London. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 16(6), 561-580.
Nwankwo, S., Madichie, N., & Ekwulugo, F. (2011). Researching African entrepreneurship in the UK. African Entrepreneurship in Global Contexts, London: WASD.
Okhomina, D. A. (2010). The Relationship Between Personality Traits and Entrepreneurial Behavior and The Moderating Role of a Supportive Environment. International Journal of Business and Economics Perspectives, 5(1), 139-154.
Opute, A. P. (2012). Maximising effectiveness in team sports: the personal audit tool. Team Performance Management, 18(1/2), 78-102.
Opute, A. P. (2014). Cross-functional bridge in dyadic relationship: conflict management and performance implications. Team Performance Management, 20(3/4), 121-147.
Opute, A. P. (2017). Exploring Personality, Identity and Self-Concept among Young Consumers. In A. Gbadamosi (Ed.), Young Consumer Behaviour: A Research Companion (79-97). Routledge.
Opute, A. P., & Madichie, N. (2016). An interrogation of accounting-marketing interface in UK financial services organisations: mixing cats with dogs? Australasian Marketing Journal, 24(3), 214-225.
Opute, A. P., & Madichie, N. (2017). Accounting-Marketing integration Dimensions and antecedents: Insights from a Frontier Market. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 32(8), 1144-1158.
Opute, A. P., Dedoussis, E., & Tzokas, N. (2013). Building blocks of Accounting-Marketing integration in UK financial services organizations. Journal of Marketing and Operations Management Research, 1(4), 323-336.
Opute, A. P., Madichie, N.O., Hagos, S.B., & Ojra, J. (2020). Entrepreneurship behaviour of African minorities in the UK: 'Demystifying cultural influence'. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business.
Parker, S. C. (2009). The economics of entrepreneurship. Cambridge University Press.
Patel, P.C., & Thatcher, M. B. (2012). Sticking It Out: Individual Attributes and Persistence in Self-Employment. Journal of Management published online, 42, 436–445
Perreault, C., Brenner, G., Breanner, A., Fillion, L.J., & Ramangalahy, C. (2003). Social Capital and Ethnic Business Performance: Entrepreneurs from Four Ethnic Groups in Canada. Paper presented at the 2003 Babson College-Kauffman Foundation Entrepreneurship Research Conference, Boston.
Piperopoulos, P. (2010). Ethnic minority businesses and immigrant entrepreneurship in Greece. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17(1), 139-158.
Poza, E.J., & Daugherty, M.S. (2013), Family business. 4th ed. Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.
Pret, T., Shaw, E., & Dodd, S.D. (2015). Painting the full picture: The conversion of economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital. International Small Business Journal, pp. 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242615595450
Ram, M., & Jones, T. (2008). Ethnic-minority businesses in the UK: A review of research and policy development. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, 26(2), 352-374.
Ram, M., Jones, T., & Villares-Varela, M. (2017). Migrant entrepreneurship: reflections on research and practice. International Small Business Journal, 35(1), 3-18.
Ram, M., Theodorakopoulos, N., & Jones, T. (2008). Forms of capital, mixed embeddedness and Somali enterprise. Work, Employment and Society, 22(3), 427-446.
Ramadani, V., & Hoy, F. (2015). Context and Uniqueness of Family Businesses. In L. P. Dana, & V. Ramadani (Eds), Family Businesses in Transition Economies: Management, Succession and Internationalization (9-37). Switzerland: Springer.
Ramadani, V., Bexheti, A., Rexhepi, G., Ratten, V., & Ibraimi, S. (2017). Succession Issues in Albanian Family Businesses: Exploratory Research. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 19(3), 294-312.
Ratten, V., Ramadani, V., Dana, L.P., Hoy, F., & Ferreira, J. (2017). Family entrepreneurship and internationalization strategies. Review of International Business and Strategy, 27(2), 150-160.
Rauch, A., & Rijsdijk, S. A. (2013). The Effects of General and Specific Human Capital on Long-Term Growth and Failure of Newly Founded Businesses. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37, 923-941.
Salganik, M. J., & Heckathorn, D. D. (2004). Sampling and Estimation in Hidden Populations Using Respondent-Drive Sampling. Sociological Methodology, 34(1), 193 - 240.
Sanders, J. M., & Nee, V. (1996). Immigrant self-employment: the family as social capital and the value of human capital. American Sociological Review, 61(2), 231-249.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research Methods for Business Students. 6th edition. Pearson Education Limited.
Sbarba, A. D., & Marelli, A. (2018). Family-controlled businesses and management control: the framing of “shareholder-oriented” practices. Journal of Management Control, 28, 417–456.
Schwartz, S. J., Kim, S. Y., Whitbourne, S. K., Zamboanga, B., Weisskirch, R., Forthun, L.F., Vazsonyi, A.T., Beyers, W., & Luyckx, K. (2012). Converging identities: Dimensions of acculturation and personal identity status among immigrant college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030753
Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65(4), 237-251.
Sithas, M. T. M., & Dissanayake, D. M. R. (2019). Social Network and Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship: A Theoretical Review and Practices. Archives of Business Research, 7, 1-8.
Smith, J. A., & Osborn, M. (2003). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In J. A. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Methods (53-80). London: Sage.
Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2013). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method, and Research. Los Angeles: Sage.
Tharawat Magazine (2016). Economic impact of family businesses – A compilation of facts. Tharawat magazine. 1 June. Retrieved from: https://www.tharawat-magazine.com/economic-impact-family-businesses/economic-impact-family-businesses-2/#gs.on6oz7
Thomas, D. R. (2006). A general inductive approach for analysing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), 237-246.
Thurik, R., Verheul, I., & Zwan, P. V. (2010). Factors Influencing the Entrepreneurial Engagement of Opportunity and Necessity Entrepreneurs. Eurasian Economic Review, 6, H201011.
Timmons, J. A., & Spinelli, S. (2009). New venture creation: entrepreneurship for the 21st century. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Ullah, F., Rahman, M. Z., Smith, R., & Beloucif, A. (2016). What influences ethnic entrepreneurs' decision to start-up: some evidence from Aberdeen, Scotland. Journal of small business and enterprise development, 23, 1081-1103. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-12-2015-0182
Urban, B. (2011). Entrepreneurial networking differences: An ethnic in-group and out-group analysis. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(1), 1-14.
Venter, E. (2015). Family entrepreneurship. In R. Venter, & B. Urban (Eds.), Entrepreneurship: Theory in Practice. 3rd edition. South Africa: Oxford University Press.
Venter, E., & Farrington, S. (2009). The nature of family businesses and their importance for economic development. New Contree, 50, 131-152.
Venter, R., Urban, B., & Rwigema, H. (2008). Entrepreneurship: Theory in practice. 2nd edition. Southern Africa: Oxford.
Waldinger, R., Howard, E.A., & Ward, R. (1990). Ethnic Entrepreneurs: Immigrant Business in Industrial Societies, Newbury Park: Sage Publications, Inc.
Wales, W. J. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation: A review and synthesis of promising research directions. International Small Business Journal, 34(1), 3-15.
Wales, W. J., Gupta, V. K., & Mousa, F.T. (2013a). Empirical research on entrepreneurial orientation: An assessment and suggestions for future research. International Small Business Journal 31(4), 357-383.
Wang, C. L., & Altinay, L. (2010). Social embeddedness, entrepreneurial orientation and firm growth in ethnic minority small businesses in the UK. International Small Business Journal, 30(1), 3-23.
Wanki, E. (2018). Social identity and consumer preference formation for high involvement products: A study of Nigerians in the UK. PhD Thesis, University of East London.
Weber, M. (1958). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Allen and Unwin.
Welter, F., Candida B., & De Bruin, A. (2014). The gendering of entrepreneurship context, 01/14. Working Paper, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung, Bonn.
Xu, D., & Fletcher, J. (2017). Understanding the Relative Value of Alternative Pathways in Postsecondary Education: Evidence from the State of Virginia. In M. Shah, & G. Whiteford (Eds.), Bridges, Pathways and Transitions International Innovations in Widening Participation (227-257). Chandos Publishing.
Zillur, R., Ullah, F., & Thompson, P. (2018). Challenges and Issues facing Ethnic Minority Small Business Owners: The Scottish experience. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 19, 177-193.
The authors must be able to transfer to Harvard Deusto Business Research the rights to publish the articles. It is the responsibility of the authors to obtain the necessary permissions for the images that are covered by copyright.
Authors conserve the copyright to their own works. Contributions to Publicaciones Harvard Deusto Business Research are covered by a CC-BY (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License) license, which grants open access rights to society. Specifically, the CC-BY license permits any type of use, distribution and changes based on the article, as long as the author and original source are properly acknowledged.