The progress of Corporate Social Responsibility from a Gender perspective through the Change Management
In recent years, one of the main priorities of companies has been to adapt their business activity and commercial strategy to be aligned with the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) established by the United Nations, in its “2030 Agenda”. To overcome this challenge, companies develop and implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategies. One of the objectives that have generated the most interest is Goal 5 dedicated to promoting gender equality. This study analyzes the gender equality evolution in companies as part of CSR through Change Management (CM). To do this, a longitudinal study was carried in the last ten years with an analysis of the content of various reports from four of the most important banks in Spain. The results corroborate the growing interest of the largest Spanish financial institutions in gender equality. Being women's access to employment, salary gap information, and the presence of women on the board of directors a priority. Likewise, the CM appears as a lever for the achievement of the SDGs by the entities, gaining relevance in recent years, and being linked to the strategic approach and business objectives for the development of CSR.
Acker, J. (2000). Gendered contradictions in organizational equity projects. Organization, 7(4), 625–632. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/135050840074007
Baumann-Pauly, D., Scherer, A. G., & Palazzo, G. (2016). Managing institutional complexity: A longitudinal study of legitimacy strategies at a sportswear brand company. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(1), 31–51. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2532-x
Bear, S., Rahman, N., & Post, C. (2010). The impact of board diversity and gender composition on corporate social responsibility and firm reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(2), 207–221.
Ben-Amar, W., Chang, M., & McIlkenny, P. (2017). Board gender diversity and corporate response to sustainability initiatives: Evidence from the carbon disclosure project. Journal of Business Ethics, 142(2), 369–383. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2759-1
Benschop, Y., & Verloo, M. (2006). Sisyphus’ Sisters: Can Gender Mainstreaming Escape the Genderedness of Organizations? Journal of Gender Studies, 15(1), 19–33. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/09589230500486884
Bernardi, R. A., & Threadgill, V. H. (2010). Women directors and corporate social responsibility. EJBO: Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organizational Studies, 15(2), 15–21.
Birindelli, G., Dell’Atti, S., Iannuzzi, A. P., & Savioli, M. (2018). Composition and activity of the board of directors: Impact on ESG performance in the banking system. Sustainability, 10(12), 4699.
Bonilla-Priego, M. J., Font, X., & Pacheco-Olivares, M. R. (2014). Corporate sustainability reporting index and baseline data for the cruise industry. Tourism Management, 44, 149–160. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.03.004
Bono, R., Arnau, J., & Vallejo, G. (2008). Analysis techniques applied to longitudinal data in psychology and health sciences in the period 1985-2005. Papeles Del Psicólogo, 29(1), 136–146.
Boto-Álvarez, A., & García-Fernández, R. (2020). Implementation of the 2030 Agenda Sustainable Development Goals in Spain. Sustainability, 12(6), 2546. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062546
Buhmann, K., Jonsson, J., & Fisker, M. (2019). Do no harm and do more good too: connecting the SDGs with business and human rights and political CSR theory. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society.
Calabrese, A., Costa, R., Ghiron, N. L., & Menichini, T. (2018). Gender Equality Among CSR Managers and its Influence on Sustainable Development: A Comparison Among Italy, Spain and United Kingdom. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 7(4), 451–451. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14207/ejsd.2018.v7n4p451
Coe, I. R., Wiley, R., & Bekker, L. G. (2019). Organisational best practices towards gender equality in science and medicine. The Lancet, 393(10171), 587–593. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33188-X
De Cabo, R. M., Gimeno, R., & Nieto, M. J. (2012). Gender diversity on European banks’ boards of directors. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(2), 145–162. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1112-6
Delgado-Piña, M. I., Rodríguez-Ruiz, Ó., Rodríguez-Duarte, A., & Sastre-Castillo, M. Á. (2020). Gender Diversity in Spanish Banks: Trickle-Down and Productivity Effects. Sustainability, 12(5), 2113.
Demetriades, J. (2007). Gender Indicators: What, Why and How? Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/dac/gender-development/43041409.pdf
Deschênes, S., Rojas, M., Boubacar, H., Prud’homme, B., & Ouedraogo, A. (2015). The impact of board traits on the social performance of Canadian firms. Corporate Governance, 15(3), 293–305. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1108/CG-08-2014-0097
Dijkstra, A. G., & Hanmer, L. C. (2000). Measuring socio-economic gender inequality: Toward an alternative to the UNDP gender-related development index. Feminist Economics, 6(2), 41–75.
ElAlfy, A., Palaschuk, N., El-Bassiouny, D., Wilson, J., & Weber, O. (2020). Scoping the Evolution of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Research in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Era. Sustainability, 12(14), 5544. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145544
Eriksson‐Zetterquist, U., & Renemark, D. (2016). Can changes to gender equality be sustained? Gender, Work & Organization, 23(4), 363–378. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12127
European Commison. (2011). A renewed EU strategy 2011-14 for Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved from: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2009_2014/documents/com/com_com(2011)0681_/com_com(2011)0681_en.pdf
Figueroa-Domecq, C., Palomo, J., Flecha-Barrio, M. D., & Segovia-Pérez, M. (2020). Technology double gender gap in tourism business leadership. Information Technology & Tourism, 1–32. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s40558-020-00168-0
Friese, S. (2011). Using ATLAS. ti for analyzing the financial crisis data. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(1), 1–24.
Furlotti, K., Mazza, T., Tibiletti, V., & Triani, S. (2019). Women in top positions on boards of directors: Gender policies disclosed in Italian sustainability reporting. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 26(1), 57–70. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1657
Galbreath, J. (2018). Is Board Gender Diversity Linked to Financial Performance? The Mediating Mechanism of CSR. Business & Society, 57(5), 863–889. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/0007650316647967
Gallego‐Álvarez, I., & Pucheta‐Martínez, M. C. (2020). Environmental strategy in the global banking industry within the varieties of capitalism approach: The moderating role of gender diversity and board members with specific skills. Business Strategy and the Environment, 29(2), 347–360.
Glass, C., Cook, A., & Ingersoll, A. R. (2016). Do Women Leaders Promote Sustainability? Analyzing the Effect of Corporate Governance Composition on Environmental Performance. Business Strategy and the Environment, 25(7), 495–511. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.1879
Grown, C., Addison, T., & Tarp, F. (2016). Aid for gender equality and development: Lessons and challenges. Journal of International Development, 28(3), 311–319.
Hauff, V. (2007). Brundtland Report: A 20 years update. In Keynote Speech Presented at the European Sustainability: Linking Policies, Implementation, and Civil Society Action Conference. Berlin, 7.
Hazelkorn, E. (2018). Gender and Higher Education: Increasing Exposure of Harassment and Pay Gaps. International Higher Education, 94, 7–8. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2018.0.10555
Hillman, A. J. (2015). Board diversity: Beginning to unpeel the onion. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 23(2), 104–107. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/corg.12090
Hussain, N., Rigoni, U., & Orij, R. P. (2018). Corporate governance and sustainability performance: Analysis of triple bottom line performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 149(2), 411–432. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3099-5
Hyun, E., Yang, D., Jung, H., & Hong, K. (2016). Women on boards and corporate social responsibility. Sustainability, 8(4), 300. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/su8040300
Ilinitch, A. Y., Soderstrom, N. S., & Thomas, T. E. (1998). Measuring corporate environmental performance. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 17(4–5), 383–408.
Kelly, I. (2016). Is the Time Right for Human Rights NGOs to Collaborate with Businesses that Want to Stop Dabbling with ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’and Start Making Social Impact? Journal of Human Rights Practice, 8(3), 422–435. https://doi.org/10.1093/jhuman/huw015
Khan, H. U. Z. (2010). The effect of corporate governance elements on corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting: Empirical evidence from private commercial banks of Bangladesh. International Journal of Law and Management, 52(2), 82–109. https://doi.org/10.1108/17542431011029406
Liao, L., Luo, L., & Tang, Q. (2015). Gender diversity, board independence, environmental committee and greenhouse gas disclosure. The British Accounting Review, 47(4), 409–424. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bar.2014.01.002
Majeed, S., Aziz, T., & Saleem, S. (2015). The effect of corporate governance elements on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure: An empirical evidence from listed companies at KSE Pakistan. International Journal of Financial Studies, 3(4), 530–556. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs3040530
Mañas-Viniegra, L. (2018). Corporate volunteering within social responsibility strategies of IBEX 35 companies. RETOS. Revista de Ciencias de La Administración y Economía, 8(16), 19–32. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.17163/ret.n16.2018.02
Medina‐Muñoz, R. D., & Medina‐Muñoz, D. R. (2020). Corporate social responsibility for poverty alleviation: An integrated research framework. Business Ethics: A European Review, 29(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/beer.12248
Miotto, G., Polo López, M., & Rom Rodríguez, J. (2019). Gender equality and UN sustainable development goals: Priorities and correlations in the top business schools’ communication and legitimation strategies. Sustainability, 11(2), 302. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020302
Miotto, G., & Vilajoana-Alejandre, S. (2019). Gender equality: a tool for legitimacy in the fast fashion industry. Harvard Deusto Business Research, 8(2), 134–147. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3926/hdbr.244
Nekhili, M., Nagati, H., Chtioui, T., & Nekhili, A. (2017). Gender-diverse board and the relevance of voluntary CSR reporting. International Review of Financial Analysis, 50, 81–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.irfa.2017.02.003
Nielsen, S., & Huse, M. (2010). The contribution of women on boards of directors: Going beyond the surface. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 18(2), 136–148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8683.2010.00784.x
Olabuénaga, J. I. R. (2012). Metodología de la investigación cualitativa. Universidad de Deusto, 15.
Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92.
Raigada, J. L. P. (2002). Epistemología, metodología y técnicas del análisis de contenido. Sociolinguistic Studies, 3(1), 1–42.
Rao, K., & Tilt, C. (2016). Board composition and corporate social responsibility: The role of diversity, gender, strategy and decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 138(2), 327–347.
Redman, A. (2018). Harnessing the Sustainable Development Goals for businesses: A progressive framework for action. Business Strategy & Development, 1(4), 230–243.
Rigby, D., & Tager, S. (2008). Learning the advantages of sustainable growth. Strategy & Leadership., 36(4), 24–28.
Tien, N. H., & Hung Anh, D. B. (2018). Gaining competitive advantage from CSR policy change: case of foreign corporations in Vietnam. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 18.
Torres, M. J. M., Izquierdo, M. Á. F., & Olmedo, E. E. (2013). Responsabilidad social corporativa e internacionalización bancaria: el caso de la banca española en Argentina, Brasil y Chile. Harvard Deusto Business Research, II(2), 143–164. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3926/hdbr.18
United Nations. (2015). World Summit on Sustainable Development “Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,” (New York). Retrieved from: https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/summit/
United Nations. (2019). Sustainable Development Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Retrieved from: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg5
United Nations Global Compact. (n.d.). UN Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/sdgs/17-global-goals
Velte, P. (2017). Do women on board of directors have an impact on corporate governance quality and firm performance? A literature review. International Journal of Sustainable Strategic Management, 5(4), 302–346. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSSM.2017.089125
Wei, F., Ding, B., & Kong, Y. (2017). Female Directors and Corporate Social Responsibility: Evidence from the Environmental Investment of Chinese Listed Companies. Sustainability, 9(12), 2292. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122292
World Economic Forum. (2020). Insight Report: The Global Gender Gap Report 2020. World Economic Forum: Cologny/Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from: https://www.weforum.org/reports/gender-gap-2020-report-100-years-pay-equality
Zavyalova, E., Studenikin, N., & Starikova, E. (2018). Business participation in implementation of socially oriented sustainable development goals in countries of central Asia and the Caucasus region. Central Asia & the Caucasus (14046091), 19(2).
Zurdo, R. J. P., Centeno, M. C. G., Fernández, M. G., & Barberis, G. M. F. (2013). Responsabilidad social corporativa y género en los consejos de administración de las cooperativas de crédito españolas. Prisma Social: Revista de Investigación Social, 10, 332–360.
The authors must be able to transfer to Harvard Deusto Business Research the rights to publish the articles. It is the responsibility of the authors to obtain the necessary permissions for the images that are covered by copyright.
Authors conserve the copyright to their own works. Contributions to Publicaciones Harvard Deusto Business Research are covered by a CC-BY (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License) license, which grants open access rights to society. Specifically, the CC-BY license permits any type of use, distribution and changes based on the article, as long as the author and original source are properly acknowledged.