Promoting the Mental Health of Healthcare Workers during COVID19 Pandemic

the influence of psychosomatic problems (work-related stress), social support, fear of COVID-19 and demographics

Keywords: Sustenance, healthcare, influence, mental health, Covid-19

Abstract

This paper examines the influence of work-related stress, social support, fear of COVID-19, and demographics in promoting mental health (MH) amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) in Nigeria. Hence, it adopted a survey research design. The results showed that work-related stress, social support, fear of COVID-19, and demographics strongly and jointly influence healthcare workers’ mental health in Nigeria. Also, they indicated a significant independent influence of these independent factors on healthcare workers’ mental health. The results show that out of the demographics considered in this study (such as gender, age, marital status, level of education, profession, department, work experience, and state of residence), only marital status did not significantly influence the healthcare workers’ mental health in Nigeria. So, the government, health faculties, clinical psychologists, human resources managers, and medical practitioners should encourage reducing work-related stress. This should be done by increasing social support, reducing fear of COVID-19, and considering demographics while trying to promote healthcare workers’ mental health in Nigeria, especially during the current COVID -19 pandemic era. Thus, this paper has recognized work-related stress, social support, fear of COVID-19, and demographics as significant influencers in promoting mental health amongst healthcare workers in Nigeria.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adamczyk, K., & Segrin, C. (2015). Perceived social support and mental health among single vs. partnered polish young adults. Current Psychology, 34(1), 82-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-014-9242-5.

Badahdah, A. M., Khamis, F., & Al Mahyijari, N. (2020). The psychological well-being of physicians during the COVID-19 outbreak in Oman. Psychiatry Research, 289, 113053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113053.

Bai, Y., Lin, C., Lin, C., Chen, J., Chue, C., & Chou, P. (2004). Survey of stress reactions among health care workers involved with the SARS outbreak. Psychiatric Services, 55(9), 1055-1057. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.55.9.1055.

Barry, M., Al Amri, M., & Memish, Z. A. (2020). COVID-19 in the shadows of MERS-CoV in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, 10(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200218.003.

Cai, J., Xu, J., Lin, D., Xu, L., Qu, Z., Zhang, Y., Ge, Y. (2020). A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: Clinical and epidemiological features. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(6):1547-1551. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa198.

Chakraborty, N. (2020). The COVID‐19 pandemic and its impact on mental health. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry, 24(2), 21-24. https://doi.org/10.1002/pnp.666.

Drapeau, J., Rossano, M., Touraud, D., Obermayr, U., Geier, M., Rose, A., & Kunz, W. (2011). Green synthesis of para-menthane-3, 8-diol from eucalyptus citriodora: Application for repellent products. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 14(7-8), 629-635. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2011.02.008.

Etheridge, Ben; Spantig, Lisa (2020): The gender gap in mental well-being during the Covid-19 outbreak: Evidence from the UK, ISER Working Paper Series, No. 2020-08, University of Essex, Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER), Colchester.

Huang, J., Liu, F., Teng, Z., Chen, J., Zhao, J., Wang, X., Wu, R. (2020). Public behavior change, perceptions, depression, and anxiety concerning the COVID-19 outbreak. Paper presented at the Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 7(8) ofaa273. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa273.

Kang, L., Ma, S., Chen, M., Yang, J., Wang, Y., Li, R., Yang, B. X. (2020). Impact on mental health and perceptions of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: A cross-sectional study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 7:11-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.028.

Kent de Grey, Robert G, Uchino, B. N., Trettevik, R., Cronan, S., & Hogan, J. N. (2018). Social support and sleep: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 37(8), 787. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000628.

Kocalevent, R., Hinz, A., & Brähler, E. (2013). Standardization of the depression screener patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the general population. General Hospital Psychiatry, 35(5), 551-555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.04.006.

Kontoangelos, K., Economou, M., & Papageorgiou, C. (2020). Mental health effects of COVID-19 pandemic: A review of clinical and psychological traits. Psychiatry Investigation, 17(6), 491-505. https://doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0161.

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., Li, R. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease in 2019. JAMA Network Open, 3(3), e203976-e203976. https://doi.org/ 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976.

Lee, S. M., Kang, W. S., Cho, A., Kim, T., & Park, J. K. (2018). The psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 87, 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.10.003.

Liang, W., Guan, W., Chen, R., Wang, W., Li, J., Xu, K., He, J. (2020). Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: A nationwide analysis in china. The Lancet Oncology, 21(3), 335-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30096-6.

Löwe, B., Decker, O., Müller, S., Brähler, E., Schellberg, D., Herzog, W., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2008). Validation and standardization of the generalized anxiety disorder screener (GAD-7) in the general population. Medical Care, 266-274. https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0b013e318160d093.

Mihashi, M., Otsubo, Y., Yinjuan, X., Nagatomi, K., Hoshiko, M., & Ishitake, T. (2009). Predictive factors of psychological disorder development during recovery following the SARS outbreak. Health Psychology, 28(1), 91-100. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013674.

Monterrosa-Castro, A., Redondo-Mendoza, V., & Mercado-Lara, M. (2020). Psychosocial factors associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in general practitioners during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Investigative Medicine: The Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research, 68(7):1228-1234. https://doi.org/10.1136/jim-2020-001456.

Morin, C. M., Belleville, G., Bélanger, L., & Ivers, H. (2011). The insomnia severity index: Psychometric indicators to detect insomnia cases and evaluate treatment response. Sleep, 34(5), 601-608. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/34.5.601.

Ogunwale, A., Majekodunmi, O., Ajayi, S., & Abdulmalik, J. (2020). Forensic mental health service implications of COVID-19 infection in Nigeria. Forensic Science International: Mind and Law, 1, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsiml.2020.100026.

Oyeniran, O. I., & Chia, T. (2020). Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Nigeria: How effective are government interventions? Ethics, Medicine and Public Health, 14, 100515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemep.2020.100515.

Panagioti, M., Geraghty, K., Johnson, J., Zhou, A., Panagopoulou, E., Chew-Graham, C., Esmail, A. (2018). Association between physician burnout and patient safety, professionalism, and patient satisfaction: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 178(10), 1317-1331. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.3713.

Prati, G., & Pietrantoni, L. (2010). The relation of perceived and received social support to mental health among first responders: A meta‐analytic review. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 403-417. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20371.

Rodríguez-Rey, R., Garrido-Hernansaiz, H., & Collado, S. (2020). Psychological impact and associated factors during the initial stage of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic among the general population in Spain. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1540. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01540.

Tam, C. W., Pang, E. P., Lam, L. C., & Chiu, H. F. (2004). Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003: Stress and psychological impact among frontline healthcare workers. Psychological Medicine, 34(7), 1197. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291704002247.

Temsah, M., Al-Sohime, F., Alamro, N., Al-Eyadhy, A., Al-Hasan, K., Jamal, A., Barry, M. (2020). The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(6):877-882. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.05.021.

Thomas, P. A., Liu, H., & Umberson, D. (2017). Family relationships and well-being. Innovation in Aging, 1(3), igx025. https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx025.

Wang, C. (2020). Pan R wan X, tan Y, xu L, ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(5):1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729.

Weiss, D. S. (2007). The impact of event scale: Revised. Cross-cultural assessment of psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 219-238) Springer.

Wilson, N., Baker, M., Crampton, P., & Mansoor, O. (2005). The potential impact of the next influenza pandemic on a national primary care medical workforce. Human Resources for Health, 3(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-3-7.

World Health Organization. (2020). Laboratory Testing for Coronavirus Disease (‎ COVID-19) in Suspected Human Cases: Interim Guidance, March 19, 2020. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331501

Wu, K. K., Chan, S. K., & Ma, T. M. (2005). Posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression in survivors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 18(1), 39-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20004.

Wu, P., Fang, Y., Guan, Z., Fan, B., Kong, J., Yao, Z., Lu, J. (2009). The psychological impact of the SARS epidemic on hospital employees in china: Exposure, risk perception, and altruistic acceptance of risk. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(5), 302-311. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370905400504.

Wu, Z., & McGoogan, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese center for disease control and prevention. Jama, 323(13), 1239-1242. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2648.

Xiao, H., Zhang, Y., Kong, D., Li, S., & Yang, N. (2020). The effects of social support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in china. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 26, e923549. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923549.

Yang, N., Xiao, H., Cao, Y., Li, S., Yan, H., & Wang, Y. (2018). Influence of oncology nurses’ empathy on lung cancer patients’ cellular immunity. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 11, 279-287. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S168649.

Yang, N., Xiao, H., Wang, W., Li, S., Yan, H., & Wang, Y. (2018). Effects of doctors’ empathy abilities on the cellular immunity of patients with advanced prostate cancer treated by orchiectomy: The mediating role of patients’ stigma, self-efficacy, and anxiety. Patient Preference and Adherence, 12, 1305-1314. https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S166460.

Zhang, W. R., Wang, K., Yin, L., Zhao, W. F., Xue, Q., Peng, M., Wang, H. X. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial problems of medical health workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in china. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 89(4), 242-250. https://doi.org/10.1159/000507639.

Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/ 10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2.

Published
2021-09-01
How to Cite
Adekanmbi, F. P., & Ukpere, W. I. (2021). Promoting the Mental Health of Healthcare Workers during COVID19 Pandemic: the influence of psychosomatic problems (work-related stress), social support, fear of COVID-19 and demographics. Harvard Deusto Business Research, 10(2), 346-369. https://doi.org/10.48132/hdbr.355
Section
Articles