Harvard Deusto Business Research https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Harvard Deusto Business Research</strong> is an open-access scientific journal that publishes articles of both a theoretical and empirical nature with the intention of contributing to the advancement in the understanding of the phenomena related to business management from any perspective.</p> Harvard Deusto Business Research en-US Harvard Deusto Business Research 2254-6235 <p align="justify">The authors must be able to transfer to Harvard Deusto Business Research the rights to publish the articles. It is the responsibility of the authors to obtain the necessary permissions for the images that are covered by copyright. <br><br>Authors conserve the copyright to their own works. Contributions to Publicaciones Harvard Deusto Business Research are covered by a CC-BY (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License) license, which grants open access rights to society. Specifically, the CC-BY license permits any type of use, distribution and changes based on the article, as long as the author and original source are properly acknowledged.</p> Letter from the Managing Editor https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/308 Josep Maria Altarriba Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 108 109 10.48132/hdbr.308 Passive, non-systematic search as an alternative to systematic search in opportunity discovery https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/298 <p>This paper summarizes the results of a multiple-case study conducted to shed light into the question of how business opportunities are recognized by examining two theoretical propositions related to two topics: 1) the role of prior knowledge in the discovery of opportunities, and 2) whether opportunities are noticed without deliberate search or can be the object of a constrained, systematic search. We studied five Spanish companies and eight business opportunities. All the opportunities of the multiple-case study were recognized thanks to the prior knowledge of the entrepreneurs. In addition, the entrepreneurs only discovered opportunities related to their prior knowledge. None of the opportunities was discovered by noticing without search, as the alertness perspective contends. Some of them were the result of a systematic search constrained to the entrepreneur’s prior knowledge, but most of them were discovered by searching passively and non-systematically within the knowledge domain of the entrepreneur. This result suggests the passive, non-systematic search as an alternative to the systematic search.</p> Antoni Olivé-Tomás Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 110 128 10.48132/hdbr.298 Influencers’ recommendations on the Internet: effects of codes of conduct https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/299 <p>Recommendations of goods and/or services on social networks are an increasingly widespread advertising tactic. Brands are aware of the power of persuasion that influencers in the digital world have on their followers. In this article, we analyze the particularities of this phenomenon and then focus on its regulation. Specifically, we refer to the suggestive role that self-regulation plays in this area. By virtue of the latter, codes of conduct in the influencer market are possible.</p> Patricia Vargas Portillo Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 129 139 10.48132/hdbr.299 Broadening the purpose of the corporation requires purposeful implementation https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/300 <p>The notion that the purpose of the corporation is to maximize profits to be distributed to its shareholders has been the guiding light of management for many decades. Nevertheless, in the last few decades many corporations, on their own, and in response to pressures from society, have realized that their operations, and hence profits, impact and are impacted by a broader set of entities: employees, clients, community, suppliers of goods and services and the environment, among others, besides the providers of capital. Corporations are recognizing that they have a responsibility towards society, that their purpose is broader that maximization of profits. This realization has been intensified with recent crises, where corporations have realized that they can and must also contribute to alleviate some societal needs. But the discussion has been so concentrated on the redefinition of this purpose and on the actions on the ground, beginning and end of a process, but the difficult task in the middle, the implementation of a broader purpose, has been neglected or underestimated, relying on the status quo or on small changes to the business as usual. But the redefinition of purpose, to be effective, to have impact, requires not only changes in strategy but also changes in culture, structure, governance and management processes among others, whose analysis is the purpose of this paper.</p> Antonio Vives Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 140 151 10.48132/hdbr.300 Engie: Business Model Transformation https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/301 <p>This article reviews the business model transformation of a French energy company, Engie. The company is adapting to a new energy business environment characterized by three trends: decarbonisation, decentralisation and digitalization. In order to achieve this objective Engie has carried out a three-year plan (2016-2019) focusing on renewable energy sources, local energy generation and new technologies. The company has developed a new strategy for the period 2019-2021, the aim is to become the world leader in zero-carbon transition “as a service” assisting business and local authorities to reduce their carbon footprint in their operations. This implies an asset light strategy, Engie provides tailor-made solutions and expertise to their customers while partnering with the owners of renewable power sources. The company is in line with the environmental concerns of all its stakeholders and believes in the profitability of this new strategy, centred on renewable energy sources.</p> Jorge Hernando Cuñado Jorge Colvin Díez Javier Antonio Enríquez Román Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 152 167 10.48132/hdbr.301 Consumers and enterprises as actors on the market https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/302 <p>This conceptual paper discusses the phenomenon of differentiation made possible through branding or innovation or a combination of the two. Differentiation is eventually the driving force for the development of its own negation, commoditization. When customers have endured a commoditized market long enough the opportunities open up for creative destruction, this concept of Schumpeter (1942), means that an entrepreneur invents a completely new way of satisfying the customers’ unsatisfied needs, making the industry that no longer bothered about their customers. Many researchers have tried to re/brand destructive innovation as their own, with concepts, such as of ”transilience”, and “blue ocean strategy’, as opposed to ‘red ocean strategy’.</p> <p>The paper focuses on innovation as a differentiation strategy and on temporary monopoly rent as a driver of innovation. Increased competition and shortening and life cycles makes capitalism more volatile and the strategies to reduce the risks involved are discussed. These strategies lead to the real-world implementation of the concentration of capital forecasted by Marx and feared by Schumpeter.</p> <p>The paper identifies the need to continuously monitor the concentration of capital and to understand individual markets by studying the firm’s profit.</p> Sarah Philipson Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 168 180 10.48132/hdbr.302 From internationalization to local markets poverty alleviation and competitiveness in the agro-industrial sector of Latin America https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/303 <p>The objective of this paper is to analyse the proposal that the production units of the Latin American agribusiness sector evolve from internationalization to their products offers aimed at “the local”, in response to changes in the world scenario. To achieve the objective, a documentary and secondary source analysis were carried out, regarding the impact of COVID19 on the Latin American economy at the world stage. The main result points to the transversality of the creative industries with the agro-industrial sector to encourage creativity within the local business networks that were originally oriented at indirect internationalization. Value enhancement (revaluation) through creativity of orange economy and recognition of peoples' cultural assets, diversity and intangible heritage generates wealth. This transversality contributes to the alleviation of poverty, sustainability and competitiveness of agro-industrial companies.</p> Tania Elena González Alvarado Renata Kubus José Sánchez-Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 181 196 10.48132/hdbr.303 Voluntary flexible working arrangements and their effects on managers and employees https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/304 <p>This paper explores the effects of flexible working arrangements on employees and their managers in a service sector. Analyzing a case study of a global management consultancy, the study concerns the impact of flexible working arrangements on job satisfaction, commitment and performance as well as well-being. While it is generally accepted that flexible working arrangements have a positive impact on employees, there has been only limited theorizing and research explaining how and why such impact is generated and which contextual organizational factors might be significant in shaping the outcome. The study provides mixed evidence for benefits from flexible working arrangements where potential for increased employee performance, well-being and job satisfaction is offset by work intensification, blurred work/home boundaries, professional isolation and perceived organizational injustice. Practical implications of the study results have been intensified by accelerated organizational transition into flexible working arrangements caused by restrictions imposed as a result of Covid-19 pandemic.</p> Stuart Sanders Joanna Karmowska Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 197 220 10.48132/hdbr.304 The antecedents of University Students' Entrepreneurship Intention. The Theory of Planned Behaviour Viewpoint https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/305 <p>Finding out whether university students will take up entrepreneurship on graduation bodes well for any economy especially the developing ones. This is because it will help governments, and other stakeholders to plan better. Importantly, if university students embrace an entrepreneurial career, it will reduce unemployment and subsequently mitigate the scourge of poverty and inequality. This study was quantitative targeting university students to understand how they perceive entrepreneurship, what they think entrepreneurship is, what they consider as the factors that may discourage them from considering an entrepreneurial career, and also whether they think of themselves as capable of venturing into entrepreneurship. Using SPSS, we analyzed the data which affirmed the three hypotheses that student’s entrepreneurship intention can be positively and significantly motivated and persuaded. Also, the result confirmed that student’s entrepreneurship intention could be positively influenced by their perception of what entrepreneurship is and the perceived characteristics of an entrepreneur. Some further research directions as well as implications are flagged.</p> Chux Gervase Iwu Abdullah Promise Opute Rylyne Nchu Abiola Abimbola Babatunde Charmaine Helena Iwu Ikenna Franklin Eze Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 221 242 10.48132/hdbr.305 Promoting Pharmaceutical Companies’ Reputation through Facebook: the case of Spain https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/306 <p>This paper aims to analyse how the 100 most reputed pharmaceutical companies in Spain use Facebook for improving their corporate reputation. To do that, on the one hand, we carried out a literature review about corporate communication, health organizations and social media; and on the other hand, we analysed their Facebook corporate profiles by using ten indicators related to corporate communication. This paper concludes that pharmaceutical companies in Spain does not consider Facebook any more like a strategic tool for their corporate communication strategies because only 18 companies manage actively a Facebook corporate profile from their headquarters in Spain.</p> Pablo Medina Aguerreber Toni González Pacanowski Eva Medina Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 243 254 10.48132/hdbr.306 Cyberdiplomacy: Managing Security and Governance Online https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/307 Patricia Vargas Portillo Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 255 257 10.48132/hdbr.307 Full Issue Vol 9 No 2 (2020) https://hdbresearch.com/hdbr/article/view/309 Harvard Deusto Business Research Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 9 2 108 257 10.48132/hdbr.309